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How Long Do The Effects Of CBD Last?

CBD oil or cannabidiol oil offers something very sought-after: relief. Whether that relief is relief from pain, stress, anxiety, or a number of different other conditions, CBD product users have claimed that CBD offers health benefits and therapeutic relief in many different forms. Like any product with such benefits, the most common question asked is: “How long will the effects last?”

There really is no single answer for this question, as the duration of the effects CBD provides depends on a number of different factors. Below you’ll find the various factors that affect duration along with general timelines depending on certain variables.

What Do the Effects of CBD Feel Like?

In order to understand if you’re feeling the effects of CBD, it’s important to first know what the effects of CBD are supposed to feel like. Ultimately, the effects of CBD will differ from user to user, but CBD generally produces a calm and relaxed feeling. Many benefits can be realized with consistent use of CBD.

Hemp based CBD products don’t typically contain much THC (.3% or less), so the effects are more subtle without the distinct high that THC produces. Effects can also be easier to feel and recognize depending on the use. Endocannabinoid pathways can take days and even weeks to establish but once established the effects of CBD can often be felt quickly. For instance those utilizing CBD for inflammatory pain have reported feeling the effects of CBD in as little as 30 mins from intake. When CBD is used for things like anxiety or stress, it can be harder to recognize the effects. Still, many can attest to a feeling of calming after taking a CBD product.

The Influence of Delivery Method on the Duration of Effects

There are a number of factors that influence the duration of effects realized with CBD intake, but the largest factor is the method of delivery. Each method of delivery has its own timing for both onset and length of duration for effects. The methods below are organized in order of longest duration to shortest duration.

CBD Oil Transdermal Patches

CBD Patch Effect Length

Patches are the longest lasting method of delivery. Transdermal patches can last anywhere from 24 to 96 hours. Certain patches can also be designed to release CBD at certain time intervals over the lifespan of the patch to prolong the effects. Patches like the Pure Ratios CBD patch have a time release built in to last four days. On the flip side, the onset time for patches can also be slower than other delivery methods. In certain cases, the effects of CBD may not be felt until hours after patch application. The absorption rate can be impacted by the amount of hair on the skin or the amount of fatty tissue under the skin.

Interested in transdermal patches? Browse our selection of popular CBD patch products.

CBD Oil Capsules

CBD capsules effect length

The effects induced by CBD oil capsules typically last 12 to 24 hours. CBD oil capsules are run through the digestive system to the liver where the molecules are metabolized by various enzymes. Due to the length of the digestive process, it can take some time for the effects to become apparent. On average, it can take up to an hour for the effects of CBD capsules to kick in.

Interested in oil capsules? Browse our selection of popular CBD capsule products.

CBD Edibles

CBD edibles effect length

Edibles come in many different forms; from chocolates to gummies and hard candy. Like capsules, edibles are also passed through the digestive system to the liver. Edibles work similarly to capsules in that they can last 12 to 24 hours and can take up to an hour after consumption for the effects to be realized.

Interested in edibles? Browse our selection of popular CBD edible products.

CBD Oil Tinctures or Drops

CBD tinctures effect length

Tinctures use a mixture of alcohol and water to extract compounds from a plant. CBD oil tinctures are usually packaged in glass bottles with a dropper to conveniently control serving size. The effects of tinctures can also typically last 12 to 24 hours.

Tinctures are applied under the tongue, and in doing so the application method bypasses the digestive system. Because the digestive system is bypassed, the effects produced by tinctures can hit faster. The onset time for tinctures is usually within 30 minutes.

Interested in tinctures? Browse our selection of popular CBD tincture products.

CBD Oil Topicals

CBD topicals effect length

CBD oil topicals are the second longest lasting method of delivery. The effects induced by topicals typically last five hours or more.  CBD topicals include creams, lotions, balms, and salves that are applied directly to the skin. Because topicals are applied to the skin, it can take time for the substances to be absorbed through the skin. The effects of CBD topicals can be felt within 15 to 20 minutes, but it can also take up to two hours to feel the effects.

Interested in topicals? Browse our selection of popular CBD topical products.

CBD Boosters

CBD boosters effect length

Boosters include edible items like mints, chewing gum, and tablets, as well as, vape juice, vape oils, and e-liquid. Boosters work the quickest, but also have the shortest duration time. The effects of CBD boosters typically last anywhere from two to four hours. The onset of effects for boosters is within minutes, because these products bypass the digestive system and are directly absorbed through your cheeks or lungs.

Interested in CBD boosters? Browse our selection of popular CBD boosters.

Other Factors That Affect How Long Effects Last

While delivery method plays the largest role in effect duration, it isn’t the only factor affecting duration. In fact, there are four additional factors that also play a considerable role in affecting the duration of CBD effects.

Serving Size

It likely goes without saying that the larger the serving size is, the longer CBD will remain in your system and the longer you will feel the effects of CBD. If you’re looking for a longer-lasting effect, it isn’t recommended that you start with a large serving size off the bat.

We recommend beginning with the lowest recommended serving size listed on the product that you’re using and then increasing from there if needed. Until you know how CBD will impact you, it’s always best to err on the side of caution and take things slow.

Frequency of Use

With many different substances, the body can build up a tolerance over time so that the effects of a substance are reduced. This typically isn’t the case with CBD. In fact, some have reported experiencing a reverse tolerance, where repeat use has required an increasingly smaller serving size to produce the desired effects over time.

Body Weight

CBD is fat-soluble and as such, is stored in the body’s fat cells. As with any fat-soluble substance, weight plays an important role in the rate of metabolization. Those who have less fat won’t store as much CBD and therefore will process the CBD much faster (leading to a reduction in the duration of the effects). On the other hand, those with a higher body fat percentage will likely experience a longer duration in the effects as it takes time for the body to process the CBD stored in the fat.


Lifestyle and body weight can often go hand-in-hand, as those with less fat are typically more active. A more active lifestyle can lead to a higher metabolism, which can again result in the CBD being processed faster. Those with more active lifestyles may experience a shorter duration in the length of the effects.

Will CBD Show Up on a Drug Test?

It’s possible you may have searched for how long the effects of CBD last due to a concern that CBD use would show up on a work drug test. It’s important to note that just because you don’t feel the effects of CBD doesn’t mean the substance has left your body entirely. Those currently seeking employment or those being onboarded for employment may have fear because CBD is derived from cannabis. While it is possible to fail a drug test with CBD use, it’s highly unlikely.

This is actually a topic we cover in greater depth in our blog on drug tests while using CBD. Any product that has more than the recommended allowance of 0.3% THC could potentially cause you to fail a drug test. However, most CBD products contain THC levels that are below the recommended allowance.

When CBD is taken in excess, it can return a false positive during an initial urine screening, because other non-THC metabolites can trigger the immunoassay response. Excess CBD intake can also cause a buildup of THC in the body to trigger a positive result for a drug test.

If you’re using CBD products frequently and you’re going to be subjected to a drug test at work, it’s in your best interest to ensure you’re taking high-quality, lab tested CBD products (like the products sold by Green Wellness Life. These products are more likely to contain low levels of THC and there will also be a lab proven reading on product contents for you to review.

The Green Wellness Life Team is Here to Help

Our primary goal at Green Wellness Life is to provide those searching for answers with the education they need to find the right CBD solution. If you’re unsure about what kind of CBD product is best for you or how you should be using a particular product to see the best results, our team is always available to answer questions and point you in the right direction.

We are not doctors. We can’t diagnose, treat, prescribe, or cure any ailments. That being said, we can still offer help based on our experiences and the feedback we’ve received from our customers. Contact Green Wellness Life today by calling (888) 772-7875 or filling out a contact form to have your questions answered promptly.





CBD For Gout

Millions of Americans suffer from gout, a type of arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in affected joints. The condition affects 8.3 million people in the United States, or 4% of the population. On average, people who have been diagnosed with gout spend $11,000 each year on treatment.While gout has been considered the “Disease of Kings” for centuries (due to the link to an overindulgence of rich foods that only the wealthy have historically been able to afford), it is by no means a condition that will make you feel like royalty. If you’re suffering from gout and looking for relief, you may be wondering if CBD can help. We’ve compiled the research to explain what CBD may or may not be able to do for you.

What Is Gout?

Gout is a type of arthritis that can affect anyone. Its symptoms — including intense joint pain — come on suddenly, and often occur at night. An attack of gout may be so severe that even the weight of a sheet may seem intolerable.

Symptoms of gout include:

  • Intense joint pain: usually in the large joint of the big toe; it can occur in any joint, including the ankles, knees, wrists and fingers. The most severe pain will occur in the fist 4 to 12 hours after an attack begins.
  • Inflammation and redness: the affected joint(s) become swollen, tender, warm and red.
  • Ongoing discomfort: after the initial pain, inflammation and redness subside, there may be some joint discomfort for days to weeks. Later attacks often last longer and affect more joints.
    Limited range of motion: as the condition progresses, it may impact the ability to move affected joints normally.

Gout is caused by the accumulation of urate crystals in the joints. These crystals may form when a person has high levels of uric acid in their blood. Uric acid is produced by the body as it breaks down purines. These substances naturally occur in the body, but are also found in certain foods, such as steak, organ meats, and seafood. Alcoholic beverages and drinks sweetened with fructose may also promote higher levels of uric acid in the blood.

Normally, uric acid is dissolved in the blood and then passes through the kidneys and is excreted as urine. However, if too much uric acid is produced — or if the kidneys excrete too little uric acid — it can build up, forming urate crystals. These crystals are sharp and needling, and can cause pain, inflammation, and swelling in a joint and the surrounding tissues.

There are a number of risk factors for developing gout. These include:

  • Diet: eating a diet rich in meat and seafood and drinking certain beverages
  • Obesity: an overweight person’s body will produce more uric acid, and their kidneys have a harder time eliminating uric acid.
  • Medical conditions: untreated high blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and heart and kidney disease can increase the risk of gout.
  • Family history
  • Age and sex: gout is more common in men, who are typically diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 50; women are more likely to develop gout after menopause, when their bodies’ uric acid levels increase.
  • Medication: some medicines, such as thiazide diuretics and low-dose aspirin, can increase uric acid levels.
    Recent surgery or trauma

In addition to the pain associated with gout, a person with this diagnosis may develop recurrent gout, advanced gout, or kidney stones.

There are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of gout. This includes staying well-hydrated, limiting or avoiding alcohol, eating low fat dairy products, limiting your intake of meat, fish, and poultry, and losing weight.

Gout is diagnosed through the use of a number of tests, including blood tests, x-ray imaging, ultrasound, a joint fluid test, and/or a dual energy CT scan. Treatment for the symptoms of gout may include the use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a pain reliever that is known to reduce gout pain (colchicine), and corticosteroids. To prevent gout, a doctor may prescribe medications to block the production of uric acid or medication that increases the removal of uric acid.

Can CBD Help With Gout?

The primary symptom of gout is severe pain and inflammation in the affected joint due to a build-up of urate crystals. When something goes wrong with your body, such as the formation of urate crystals in a joint, your body’s immune response kicks into gear. When you have an injury, your body will flood the area with white blood cells to surround and protect the area, which creates both visible redness and swelling (inflammation). Cytokines are a signaling protein that are secreted by immune cells when a response to an injury is required.

According to scientific research, CBD may help to control inflammation by dis-regulating cytokine production, and then disrupting the immune system response — which in turn reduces inflammation. Particularly with chronic inflammation, which occurs in gout, it’s believed that CBD could help to decrease tissue injury by suppressing production of IL-6 cells. The potential for CBD as an anti-inflammatory is very promising and many studies have suggested that CBD could be extremely helpful in aiding with arthritis-related inflammation and pain.

  • study conducted in 2011 found that CBD helped to reduce inflammatory pain in rats by affecting the way pain receptors respond to stimuli.
  • 2014 review of existing research conducted on animals concluded that CBD could be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis pain.
  • 2016 study found that the application of CBD topicals showed potential in relieving pain and inflammation associated with arthritis.
  • An additional 2017 study concluded that CBD could be a safe and effective treatment for osteoarthritis joint pain.

While findings have been encouraging, there is still more research needed to confirm that CBD is an effective aid for arthritis pain and inflammation. Nevertheless, if CBD can help with arthritis pain and inflammation, it could also help with the pain and inflammation caused by gout (being that gout is a type of arthritis). In addition to studying the effects CBD has on gout symptoms, scientists have started to study whether or not CBD could help with risk factors that may lead to gout.

  • 2016 study published in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry found that CBD could be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.
  • 2017 study published in the Journal of Clinical Insight found that CBD could help to reduce both resting blood pressure and blood pressure increases in response to stress.
  • Lastly, a 2012 study found that CBD has therapeutic potential with regards to the prevention of diabetes and diabetic conditions.

Like claims related to the management of pain and inflammation, significantly more research is needed to determine whether or not CBD truly can help in mitigating conditions that lead to gout.

Buy CBD From a Trusted Vendor

If you suffer from gout and are interested in trying CBD products, we do sell products available on our online shop.

It’s worth noting that there is a difference between isolate and full-spectrum CBD products. CBD isolate is the plainest form of CBD with only trace amounts of other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids present (if at all). On the other hand, full-spectrum CBD contains other cannabinoids besides CBD. The additional cannabinoids in full-spectrum CBD play a crucial role in helping to achieve the entourage effect (cannabinoids working in synergy). For this reason, full-spectrum CBD tends to offer a wider range of benefits and is likely the better form of CBD to test when trying CBD with gout. You can shop full-spectrum CBD products here.

When shopping for CBD, you want to make sure that you are buying from a safe source — a company that has tested its products independently, lists the ingredients and origin of the CBD itself, and tells you how the product was extracted from hemp.

At Green Wellness Life, we pride ourselves on the care that we take in selecting safe CBD products that have gone through rigorous testing. We even offer a buyers guide to help you as you decide what to buy.

We are not doctors. We can’t diagnose, treat, or prescribe any ailments. However, we do report on scientific studies and customer testimonials to keep readers informed on CBD and the potential of CBD oil.

How to Use CBD For Pain-Free Days

More Americans suffer from pain than from diabetes, heart disease and cancer combined. Chronic pain accounts for the vast majority of people using long-term disability benefits, and also accounts for the most hospital visits per year than any other health issue. Chronic pain can bring someone to their knees, and dramatically change the course of their life as they attempt to manage their pain experience. Pain, when experienced on a daily basis, is literally debilitating for millions upon millions of people around the world. It impacts quality of life, personal relationships, and professional development.

Although medication exists which can alleviate the experience of chronic and acute pain, they are currently insufficient for long term relief. This is because the primary prescribed drug is an opioid variant, and opioids are all extremely powerful but immensely addictive substances. They are so problematic that they have caused a serious prescription drug overdose and abuse crisis across North America. With the rising opioid crisis, it is clear that the current status of chronic pain treatment is not sustainable and that is where a substance called cannabidiol (CBD) comes into play. Cannabidiol has been shown, scientifically and anecdotally, to reduce pain, often when opioids have failed. It is able to reduce pain while simultaneously improving the quality of life, and is devoid of all risk of side effects that is usually associated with modern day pain treatment.

A Review of the Research

Current research supports the potency of cannabinoids (including CBD) for treatment of pain caused by the following illnesses:

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Chronic Inflammation
  • Neuropathic Pain
  • Intractable Cancer Pain
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Migraines

Interestingly, some pharmaceuticals have been approved for use in pain treatment (in Canada, Europe, and even the USA) that are actually synthetic cannabinoids.

There are many avenues that CBD and other cannabinoids are thought to affect the perception of pain. Each theory being discussed here is supported by robust preliminary research, but as with many areas of CBD use, they all require more in-depth study before solid conclusions can be made.

Serotonin Receptors:Serotonin is responsible for regulating many biological processes like mood, sleep, and thermoregulation, plus plays a complex role in the experience of chronic pain. Cannabinoids have been found to both increase production of serotonin, and decrease the synaptosomal uptake, meaning more serotonin stays around for longer, maintaining better mood, thermoregulation and pain regulation.

Trigeminovascular System:This system revolves around the trigeminal nerve and cerebral blood vessels. It may be responsible for some forms of migraines and headaches. It is theorized that cannabinoids may help regulate this system for the alleviation of this type of acute pain.

Glutamatergic system:Responsible for the internal communication (neurotransmissions) for the majority of the nervous system, the glutamatergic system is directly linked to chronic pain. Interestingly, cannabinoids have been found to limit glutamate release, and THC in particular has been found to reduce the release of a specific pain related mechanism within this system (NMDA) by upwards of 40%.

Beta-endorphins:Endorphins are produced within the pituitary gland, and are well known as powerful pain suppressants. Cannabinoids are evidenced to stimulate increased beta-endorphins, and thereby shown to reduce pain.

Opioid Interactions:An extremely interesting interaction has been noted between opioids and CBD. Scientists have found that not only does CBD treatment in conjunction with opioid therapy reduce the development of opioid tolerance, it also reduces the experience of opioid withdrawal. On top of this, CBD can revitalize the opioid’s pain suppression effects, even after the opioids initially wore off.

How to take CBD for Pain

Finding the perfect personal dosage of CBD isn’t an exact science, at least at this point in time. Although the research is working to catch up to people’s personal experiences, there isn’t currently an approved industry wide dosage guide for CBD use. Part of the problem is that different brands have different potencies, making it hard to indicate that 10 mg of one brand will equal the results of 10 mg of another brand. It also comes down to the fact that CBD dose is dramatically affected by body type, lifestyle (diet and physical activity), specific pain being treated and likely a host of other variables. Dosage will vary between each individual, however there are some recommendations for how to use CBD for pain.

  1. Do your research beforehand, read individual experiences available on forums, online articles from trusted sources and the available scientific research. Be sure to investigate cases specific to your pain (i.e., joint and muscle inflammation, Cystic fibrosis, MS related).
  2. If possible consult with a medical professional prior to use, and consider your own personal variables (illness, body type, etc.).
  3. Start with the minimum recommended dose. In a brief overview of the research, this can be as low as 1-2 mg every few hours. Slowly increase over the course of a few days, until you begin to experience relief. Slow and steady increase is the name of the game, however, the highest dose seems to top out at roughly 20 mg.


  1. https://report.nih.gov/nihfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=57https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18728714
  3. https://www.solcbd.com/blogs/news/cbd-vs-thc-which-for-pain
  4. http://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-oil-for-pain
  5. https://www.honeycolony.com/article/10-benefits-of-cbd-for-chronic-pain/

Source: SolCBD

The Best Benefits of Eating Hemp

Legal hemp just celebrated its first birthday in the U.S.A. Its new status has opened a world of opportunities for everyone, no matter whether you’re a farmer, producer, or consumer.

Hemp’s utility is hugely versatile and multi-purposed. In this article, we’ll be looking at the wondrous benefits of ingesting hemp foods in the form of hemp seeds and hemp seed oil.

But let’s start with a couple of important distinctions real quick…

RELATED: Thinking of Growing Hemp? Read This First


1. Hemp vs. Marijuana
2. Hemp Oil Is Not the Same as CBD Oil
3. Nutritional Benefits of Hemp
3.1 One of the Best Sources of Essential Fatty Acids
3.2 An Essential Source of Amino Acids
3.3 A High-Fiber Food
3.4 Minerals and Vitamins
4. Health Benefits of Hemp Seeds
4.1 Protect Your Brain
4.2 Promote Cardiac Health
4.3 Beat Inflammation
4.4 Promote Healthy Skin
4.5 Whole Hemp Seeds May Aid Digestion
5. Tips for Adding Hemp to Your Food
6. Conclusion 

Hemp vs. Marijuana

These two are not the same, yet misconceptions abound regarding the differences between them. [1]

First, the terms “hemp” and “marijuana” are legal nomenclature. They are not taxonomic terms, meaning this:

  • Both plants are from the same plant family (Cannabaceae) and genus (Cannabis).
  • Both are from the same cannabis plant speciesCannabis sativa L.
  • The difference between hemp and marijuana is based on only one specific characteristic, and this cannot be observed by looking at the actual plant. (All Cannabis sativa L. plants look the same.)
  • Two other cannabis species are also called “marijuana” (Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis). The three species differ in plant size and leaf shape, and marijuana can contain 30–40% THC in dry weight.
  • The only legal difference between hemp and marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. For a crop to be defined as hemp, it must contain less than 0.3 percent THC in dry weight.
  • Hemp is harvested for a great variety of products. Marijuana is harvested only for medicine and recreational drug use.

Hemp vs. Marijuana

RELATED: Hemp vs. Weed | What Is the Difference?

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides the citations: [2]

Marijuana and industrial hemp are different varieties of the same plant species, Cannabis sativa L. Marijuana typically contains 3 to 15 percent THC on a dry-weight basis, while industrial hemp contains less than 1 percent (Blade, 1998; Vantreese, 1998). 

Most developed countries that permit hemp cultivation require use of varieties with less than 0.3 percent THC. 

However, the two varieties are indistinguishable by appearance. DeMeijer et al. (1992), in a study of 97 Cannabis strains, concluded that short of chemical analysis of the THC content, there was no way to distinguish between marijuana and hemp varieties.

Most developed countries that permit hemp cultivation require use of varieties with less than 0.3 percent THC.

RELATED: All You Ever Wanted to Know about THC and CBD

Naturally, hemp production is highly regulated in the U.S. Hemp products abound, and the most popular hemp foods are oil and seeds. No, you cannot get high from eating hemp foods, nor will you test positive for marijuana on any drug test.

Hemp Seed Oil Is Not the Same as CBD Oil

These two oils are easily confused, but they’re not the same.

Hemp Seed Oil Is Not the Same as CBD Oil

Hemp Seed Oil Is Not the Same as CBD Oil

Hemp Seed Oil Is Not the Same as CBD Oil

RELATED: The Underlying Difference Between Hemp Oil vs. CBD Oil

Nutritional Benefits of Hemp

Hemp foods deliver some fantastic nutritional benefits to your body. These can be had via the seeds or the fresh leaves (in juices or salads).

Hemp seeds, as described by Healthline, are technically a nut and have a mild, nutty flavor. They are often referred to as “hemp hearts.”

Hemp seeds have a rich nutritional profile and provide a range of health benefits.

Hemp Seeds are One of the Best Sources of Essential Fatty Acids

Hemp seed oil is a complete source of all the essential fatty acids. The body cannot produce essential fatty acids and must obtain them from food.

Hemp seeds contain over 30% fat. They are exceptionally rich in linoleic acid (omega-6 or LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an omega-3) in the ideal ratio. They also contain gamma-linolenic acid, which has proven health benefits. [3]

Hemp seed oil is the superhero of the omegas for other reasons too, as explained in a Journal of Nutraceuticals Functional & Medical Foods article: [4]

One reason for the lack of negative side effects from excessive ingestion of hemp oil is specifically related to the ratio of LA:LNA. Because most oils do not contain the optimum ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, they tend to promote the accumulation of metabolic intermediates that, in turn, hinder fatty acid metabolism. The properly balanced hemp seed oil does not promote an over-accumulation of certain metabolic products and all of the fatty acid metabolic pathways have the necessary intermediates to work efficiently, regardless of the quantities consumed.

Hemp Seeds are An Essential Source of Amino Acids

Amino acids are the building blocks for all proteins. The body cannot produce all nine of these acids, so they must be ingested.

Hemp seeds are a complete source of plant-based amino acids, meaning that they provide all nine essential amino acids the body needs.

Relatively few plant-based foods are complete sources of protein, making hemp seeds a valuable addition to a vegetarian or vegan diet.

Medical News Today explains that the seeds contain almost as much protein as soybeans. In every 30 grams (g) of seeds, or about three tablespoons, there are 9.46 g of protein. [5]

They are furthermore rich in an amino acid called arginine, which has benefits for heart health.

The digestibility of hemp protein is also very good—better than protein from many grains, nuts, and legumes.

Hemp Seeds are A High Fiber Food

Much of the fiber in a hemp seed lies in its outer hull or shell. However, even without the shells, hemp seeds are a good source of fiber, with three tablespoons containing approximately 1.2 g.

Consuming enough fiber every day can:

  1. Reduce appetite and therefore help with weight management
  2. Work to stabilize blood sugar levels
  3. Promote gut health

Hemp seeds contain an impressive array of vitamins and minerals.

As highlighted by Medical News Today, hemp seeds contain an impressive array of vitamins and minerals and are especially rich in vitamin E, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. [5]

They are also a good source of iron, zinc, and B vitamins, including niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate.

However, the fatty acids are the most desirable nutritious contents of the oil, especially due to the ratios in which they occur.

Health Benefits of Hemp Seeds

Hemp seeds have many positive health effects.

They may:

Hemp seeds may protect your brain.

Fatty acids are essential for brain health and good functioning. We already know that hemp oil and seeds are rich in this nutrient.

A recent animal study found that phenylpropionamides (TPA) extracted from hemp seeds helped protect the brain against induced inflammation. [6]

In addition, essential fatty acids, which are neuroprotective, are known to have antioxidant properties.

Since it’s a rich source of omega-3 (the known brain fatty acid), it could help with cognitive functioning, too. One study has shown that older adults who ingested fish (also rich in omega-3) once a week performed better in a cognitive skills test than their fish-avoiding counterparts. This suggests that eating fatty-acid-rich foods such as hemp seeds and oil could help you think better. [7]

Hemp seeds may promote cardiac health.

In this, hemp seeds and hemp seed oil are simply rock stars.

Because hemp oil is so rich in essential fatty acids, specifically omega-3s and omega-6s, it is important for cardiac health.

One clinical study showed that its addition to a fatty diet actually normalized platelet aggregation. [8]

The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels. This normalization is not due to a reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, but may be partly due to increased levels of plasma GLA.

Platelets are cells that occur normally in the blood, and they help clot the blood to heal an injury like a cut.

However, a high-saturated-fat diet, smoking, and other lifestyle habits can cause high cholesterol, which, in turn, increases platelet activation. This can cause dangerous blood clots to form in the arteries, which could give rise to serious health problems such as strokes, cardiac arrest, and more. So, it’s good news that hemp oil returned abnormal platelet aggregation back to normal.

It's good news that hemp oil returned abnormal platelet aggregation, caused by high cholesterol, back to normal.

The gamma-linolenic acid found in hemp seeds has also been linked to reduced inflammation, which may decrease the risk of heart disease.

Due to legal restrictions, very few studies with hemp seeds for cardiac health have been conducted.

However, there’s strong evidence supporting the theory that essential fatty acids are good, if not crucial for cardiac and circulatory health. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seem to affect the following positively:

  • high blood pressure
  • atherosclerosis
  • high cholesterol
  • coronary heart disease

So, while more clinical research is necessary, we can conclude with some confidence that hemp seeds may confer the same benefits. [9]

RELATED: Could CBD Be Inflammation’s Worst Enemy?

Hemp Seeds may Beat Inflammation

The anti-inflammatory effects of essential fatty acids are well documented.

Apart from its brain- and heart-protecting properties, ingesting hemp seeds may reduce inflammation and manage the symptoms of chronic diseases, such as:

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Arthritis
  • Non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease

Hemp Seeds may Promote Healthy Skin

Ingesting hemp seed oil is good for the skin, too.

It is chock full of natural oils that mimic your skin’s lipids. Lipids are vital to the skin’s protective barrier and essential for cell-to-cell communication. With its similarities to these lipids, hemp oil helps to rejuvenate aging skin and assists with water absorption and elasticity.

One 20-week crossover study has demonstrated hemp oil’s efficacy to improve atopic dermatitis. And no, not topically applied, but ingested as a supplement. [10]

Whole Hemp Seeds May Aid Digestion

Healthline elaborates: [3]

Whole hemp seeds are a good source of both soluble and insoluble fiber, containing 20% and 80%, respectively.

Soluble fiber forms a gel-like substance in your gut. It’s a valuable source of nutrients for beneficial digestive bacteria and may also reduce spikes in blood sugar and regulate cholesterol levels.

Insoluble fiber adds bulk to your stool and may help food and waste pass through your gut. It has also been linked to a reduced risk of diabetes.

Whole hemp seeds are a good source of both soluble and insoluble fiber.

RELATED: The 9 Hemp Oil Benefits That Can Change Your Life

Tips for Adding Hemp to Your Food

Crush ‘Em and Eat ‘Em: You can buy crushed or hulled seeds, or you can remove their hard outer shells at home. Use a mortar and pestle or a food processor for this purpose.

Turn your morning fruit smoothie into a protein fest with ground hemp seeds. Or add some hulled seeds to veggie soup or stews. Also, consider giving extra health power to your home-baked goodies with a spoonful of crushed seeds.

Truly, the hulled seeds (also called hemp hearts) can be added to just about anything for bulk.

The flavor is delicious, and you’ll be consuming a whole lot of good stuff to boot.

Turn your morning fruit smoothie into a protein fest with ground hemp seeds.

RELATED: Six Ways to Improve Cooking with CBD—Your Best Guide!

Oil it and Eat it: As a supplement, take a dessert spoon of oil with a bit of fresh lemon juice. It’s an acquired taste.

Since it’s not usually a palate-pleaser, you may need to mask the taste a bit in food, too. Consider pairing it with strong curries, garlic, or herbs like cilantro, oregano, and basil.

Alternatively, buy infused oil, or make your own with a mix of herbs (rosemary, bay leaf, lemon leaves, thyme, sage, lavender, etc.) and/or vegetables like garlic, onion, peppers, or spices like peppercorns, cinnamon, cumin, etc.

Keep in mind that the oil has a very low smoking point, so frying with hemp seed oil isn’t recommended. Instead, use it for low-heat cooking or in delicious salad dressings.

Make your own infused hemp seed oil with a mix of herbs or spices.

RELATED: Discover Hemp History and 5 Powerful Benefits of Hemp

Tasty Toasts: Health guru Dr. Weil recommends eating roasted whole hemp seeds as a snack. They’re delicious and very easy to prepare. [11]

Here’s how to turn hemp seeds into a more-ish bite:

  1. Pour half a cup of seeds into a dry skillet placed over medium-high heat.
  2. Stir them around until they begin to toast and pop.
  3. At that point, turn off the heat, stir in a teaspoon of olive oil, and season with salt and pepper or a little soy sauce, red pepper, garlic powder, or herbs.
  4. Prepare only as much as you can eat since the cooked seeds don’t keep well.

Other hemp foods to look for in health shops include hemp milk, granola bars, candy, beer, and such. Turn on your creativity and work with all of these to add this versatile, nutrient-rich plant to your diet.


Enjoy the health benefits of hemp by eating its seeds or oil. Not much concrete clinical research has been conducted into hemp’s health benefits so far, but the changed legislation is expected to pave the way for that, too.


  1. https://medium.com/cbd-origin/hemp-vs-marijuana-the-difference-explained-a837c51aa8f7
  2. https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/41740/15852_ages001eb_1_.pdf?v=0
  3. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-health-benefits-of-hemp-seeds
  4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242287666_The_Composition_of_Hemp_Seed_Oil_and_Its_Potential_as_an_Important_Source_of_Nutrition
  5. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323037
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288804/
  7. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/do-omega-3s-protect-your-thinking-skills
  8. https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/y08-011#.XhatH0cza01
  9. https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-7075-7-32
  10. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09546630510035832?src=recsys
  11. https://www.drweil.com/diet-nutrition/food-safety/how-healthy-is-hemp/

Source: SolCBD

CBD and Blood Thinners: What You Should Know

Is CBD Dangerous?

Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of Cannabis sativa L., is suddenly all the rage in most states across the U.S.

The recent removal of hemp cannabis from the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s list of controlled substances and various state-managed medical marijuana programs are probably the most prominent reasons for this recent explosion of the market.

But is CBD really safe and effective—especially for people who take blood-thinning medicine? Is it an anticoagulant by itself?

Some consumers are still wondering about this.

Is CBD really safe and effective—especially for people who take blood-thinning medicine?

RELATED: CBD is Everywhere! This is Why It’s Popular

1. What the FDA Says About CBD’s Safety

The country’s major medicine-regulating body, the FDA, leans toward a verdict of “It can be dangerous because we don’t know enough about how it works yet.”

This is the warning posted on their site: [1]

CBD has the potential to harm you, and harm can happen even before you become aware of it.

  • CBD can cause liver injury. 
  • CBD can affect the metabolism of other drugs, causing serious side effects. 
  • Use of CBD with alcohol or other Central Nervous System depressants increases the risk of sedation and drowsiness, which can lead to injuries.

This is quite evocative and alarmist language, with very little backing scientific evidence that CBD does indeed “have the potential to harm you”—and cause liver damage, for instance.

Also, scroll down on their page for a bit and you will read that the FDA worries about the long-term effects of CBD on the developing brain—i.e., children’s brains. Yet only last year, the organization approved the first epilepsy drug for…

…use in children to treat seizures caused by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome. It can be given to children ages 2 years and older. [2]

FDA worries about the long-term effects of CBD on children's brains. Yet it approved the first epilepsy drug for them...

Sooooo…kids with epilepsy don’t have to worry about this safety concern of the FDA’s? We are wondering about this apparent double standard.

But theoretically, because of the way cannabis is metabolized, CBD can interfere with the efficacy and safety of some drugs. In fact, there is some evidence that one type of meds—blood thinners (warfarin or Coumadin/Jantoven)—can potentially be affected by CBD when taken together.

2. What is Warfarin?

Healthline explains the purpose of this medicine:

Warfarin is used to treat and prevent blood clots that might result in heart attack, stroke, or death. It’s also used for blood clots in atrial fibrillation, heart valve replacement, venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. [3]

Warfarin also has a so-called black box warning from the FDA, according to Healthline.

This is the most serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A black box warning alerts doctors and patients to potentially dangerous effects.

They go on to explain that warfarin thins the blood and limits its ability to clot.

It can cause serious bleeding, which can lead to death. You must have regular blood tests and visits with your doctor to monitor your condition. Don’t start or stop any other drug or herbal product unless your doctor tells you to. Tell your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of bleeding.

They go on to explain that warfarin thins the blood and limits its ability to clot.

So it’s clear that blood thinners and their side effects are not to be messed with. Too much of it in the bloodstream could be fatal, so it makes sense to ask whether CBD can interfere with its efficacy.

A search online for research in this regard brings up very few human studies. We could source only two. Let’s take a look at them to see if there’s real reason for concern.

3. An Interaction Between Warfarin and Cannabidiol, a Case Report

A clinical case report or case study is a specific type of academic publication, sometimes submitted by medical practitioners themselves. In this, they share facts about unusual patient cases or cases that haven’t been described before. [4]

The most recent report of a CBD-warfarin interaction was a case study published in 2017. [5]

The patient was a 44-year-old Caucasian male with Marfan Syndrome (MFS). MFS is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. Patients present with exceptionally long limbs, fingers, and toes. They also tend to experience complications that involve the heart and aorta, with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm. [6]

The patient in question had to have mechanical mitral valve replacement done and was on warfarin therapy. He also suffered from post-stroke epilepsy.

An Interaction Between Warfarin and Cannabidiol, a Case Report

He was enrolled in the University of Alabama, Birmingham open-label program for compassionate use of CBD for the management of treatment-resistant epilepsy.

The seizures started when the patient was 27 years old, after cardiac surgery, when he experienced a stroke. He did fine on one anti-seizure medicine for years, but in 2011, the seizures returned and couldn’t be managed even with multiple medicines. Epilepsy surgery was considered, but the man was determined to be a poor surgical candidate for various reasons.

At the time of study enrolment, the patient was taking two antiepileptics, both twice daily. He was also taking warfarin, with a goal International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2–3. Before he started taking CBD, his INR has been stable for approximately six months.

The patient was started on a dose of 5mg of CBD per kilogram of body weight twice a day.

RELATED: Why Are People Using CBD Oil for Epilepsy?

He was started on a dose of 5mg of CBD per kilogram of body weight twice a day. Per study protocol, the dose was doubled every two weeks. Toward the end of the program, he was taking approximately 1800mg of CBD twice a day.

This is what happened:

With up-titration of CBD oil, a non-linear increase in the INR was noted (Table 1, Fig. 1). Warfarin dosage adjustments were made by primary care physician in (an) effort to maintain an INR within his therapeutic range. At the most recent study visit, his warfarin dose had been reduced by approximately 30%. The patient was followed clinically without bleeding complications.

Here’s what we think is important to notice about this case study:

Important points to notice about the case study of interaction between Warfarin and Cannabidiol

Important points to notice about the case study of interaction between Warfarin and Cannabidiol

The authors of this study concluded the following:

This finding suggests an interaction between warfarin and cannabidiol, underscoring the importance of monitoring appropriate laboratory work in patients receiving concomitant cannabis products and other pharmaceuticals, particularly those metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. In patients taking warfarin, INR monitoring is suggested during initiation and up-titration of cannabinoids.

It’s imperative to consult with your doctor first if you want to take CBD while taking any blood-thinning medication.

The positive spin is that, based on this study, taking CBD concomitantly with warfarin could be a good thing. CBD seems to increase the levels of the medicine that’s in your blood, so you might need less of it over time.

Under no circumstances should you try this on your own, however, because your doctor will need to adjust the warfarin based on regular blood tests, which you probably already know.

4. Probable Interaction Between Warfarin and Inhaled and Oral Administration of Cannabis

Again, this case study demonstrated elevated INR after only one month of ingesting edible cannabis and smoking joints. These only dropped after the patient discontinued cannabis use.

The authors were even more conservative in their conclusion regarding the possible drug-drug interaction of cannabis.

There are no previous reports of interactions between edible cannabis and warfarin, with very few case reports describing the interaction with other forms of cannabis. Close monitoring of INR in patients with concomitant cannabis is recommended for proper warfarin management. [7]

Probable Interaction Between Warfarin and Inhaled and Oral Administration of Cannabis

5. But Can CBD Thin My Blood? 

The truth is that we just don’t know yet. Scientists think it might be the case, but research into this specifically is scant at best.

And the data is confusing right now.

For instance, one study looked at the anticoagulant effects of three cannabinoids (THC, CBD, and CBN) in obese rats. They concluded that only THC and CBN displayed anticoagulant activity. [8]

It should be clear, therefore, that a lot more well-designed clinical study is needed in this regard.

(Again, don’t be tempted to experiment by yourself with CBD for anticoagulation purposes.)

Can CBD Thin My Blood?

RELATED: THC & CBD: The Differences You Need to Know

The Other Dangers of Taking CBD

Any other dangers? Well, so far, no deaths due to CBD consumption have been reported anywhere in the world.

But there was one bad incident.

In 2018 in Utah, 50 people fell ill after taking a CBD product sold in the stores. Some had to be hospitalized, and they experienced symptoms that included altered mental status, vomiting, seizures, and shaking.

Let this go to show that knowing what’s in the product you’re buying is very important, though. Because this poisoned product was a synthetic CBD, with no trace of the real thing inside. [9]

(Make sure you buy products where the contents have been third-party lab-tested and the report is easily accessible.)

Buy those CBD products where the contents have been third-party lab-tested.

The truth is simply that more data indicates CBD’s excellent safety and side effect profile than the opposite.

A recent updated survey of the literature on the safety and side effects of CBD reinforced this.

The comprehensive review of 132 original studies by Bergamaschi et al. describes the safety profile of CBD, mentioning several properties: catalepsy is not induced and physiological parameters are not altered (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). Moreover, psychological and psychomotor functions are not adversely affected. The same holds true for gastrointestinal transit, food intake, and absence of toxicity for non-transformed cells. Chronic use and high doses of up to 1500 mg per day have been repeatedly shown to be well tolerated by humans.

Nonetheless, some side effects have been reported for CBD, but mainly in vitro or in animal studies. They include alterations of cell viability, reduced fertilization capacity, and inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism and drug transporters (e.g., p-glycoprotein).1 Consequently, more human studies have to be conducted to see if these effects also occur in humans. In these studies, a large enough number of subjects (has) to be enrolled to analyze long-term safety aspects and CBD possible interactions with other substances. [10]

In layman’s terms, this is what’s important to take away from the above:

  1. CBD won’t make you high or cause induced trances (catalepsy).
  2. In lower doses, it doesn’t seem to cause any significant fluctuations in physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. (It can have some effect, but not what is considered “significant effects.”)
  3. CBD won’t affect your psychological or psychomotor (fine and gross motor skills) adversely.
  4. It also won’t affect your digestion or poison you.
  5. Cannabidiol is extremely well-tolerated in humans, even in high doses of 1500mg per day.

Serious side effects have mainly been reported in laboratory or animal studies, meaning that this has not been seen in humans so far. They include:

  1. Changes to cells’ viability
  2. Reduced reproductive capacity
  3. Inhibition of liver drug metabolism and drug transporters

Some say that “you cannot argue with dead mice,” but this assertion is flawed. Human physiology differs from animal physiology in important ways. For instance, CBD binds to different receptors in the animal central nervous system than in the human one. (In fact, this may account for studies’ different outcomes in terms of CBD’s anticoagulant properties. It will have to be tested, though.)

RELATED: Pharmaceutical Drugs That Can Interfere with CBD

In Conclusion

There’s a lot more evidence that CBD is safe for use than the opposite. With low-dose CBD, there is no indication of serious drug interaction to date. Only in the very high-dose range (which, in the real world, is not what most people ingest every day) and in isolated cases has cannabidiol shown possible interaction with blood thinners.

The evidence that it is a blood thinner on its own is also far from conclusive.

To stay on the safe side, though—if you’re on any medicine, don’t take CBD or cannabis products without consulting your doctor first.

Source: SolCBD

CBD and Your Immune System

What can we do?

I’m sure I don’t have to explain why there is unnerving electricity in the air as we all venture into these uncharted territories together. Pandemics aside, although there are many circumstances beyond our control, there are some things within our realm of power. That’s where we should focus.

What does that have to do with CBD?

Immune System ScaledI’m sure when thinking about COVID-19 “hemp” is not the first word to come to your mind, but it’s one of mine. With a boom of CBD in the market, there is a plethora of misinformation out there. Hemp based products are not the magical potions that some ads would lead you to believe, but I do think that there are some relevant and less widely discussed potential benefits. What I find to be one of the most impactful reasons that I take 50mgs of the Endoca Raw tincture every morning is how cannabinoids can potentially aid our immune system.

If you haven’t had the chance to meet me you may not know that I, despite my young age, have Rheumatoid Arthritis and Fibromyalgia. Having an autoimmune disorder, especially with the current global climate, is concerning at best but these are not new concerns. Autoimmune diseases, if you’re unfamiliar with the term (lucky duck) are diseases where your body’s normal defense system triggers abnormal inflammation. This leads to a compromised immune system as well as some good old fashioned chronic pain. 

Before my time here at Green Wellness, I used to work at a daycare and all of those snot-nosed kids (I say lovingly, I assure you) tended to get me sick. I was all too aware of my compromised immune system. I wouldn’t just catch a cold from holding Timmy, I would fall gravely ill and often have to sleep through several days to begin to recover. Luckily, I found my home here at Green Wellness and have added a CBD supplement to my routine to avoid those disastrous colds.

How CBD Impacts Your Immune System

It may just be me, but I have a hard time visualizing how taking a pill or swallowing some oil will impact something head to toe, like an immune system. There is a complex cell-signaling system called the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) that is responsible for the translation of CBD to potential symptom relief. If you have read any of our past blogs, you will know that your CB1 receptors are expressed on cells in the nervous system and our CB2 receptors are expressed on cells in our immune system. Our CB1 and CB2 receptors are what is known as endocannabinoid receptors and they are responsible for the physical processes. Although there is limited research into these two receptors, we know that there is a relationship between cannabinoids, which regulate neurons in the brain and nervous system, and CB2 receptors in the brain impacting one’s immune function. However, both CB1 and CB2 receptors can be found on immune cells. As contradictory as that sounds, there are just a lot more CB2 receptors present and the cannabinoids act on immune cells through the CB2 receptor.

What Really Is Your Immune System?

What is Immune SystemBefore we get into all the ways cannabidiol can benefit your immune system I think it helps to start from the bottom up. Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs intended to keep us safe against bacteria and viruses (antigens). Just like with any group of people, there are some key players that take on more of a leadership role to accomplish the goal. One of those notable players in your immune system is the white blood cells, also known as leukocytes, which function to find and destroy unwanted visitors in your body.

There are two different types of leukocytes in your body: lymphocytes and phagocytes. Lymphocytes, or B cells and T cells, destroy antigens and remind the body of previous attackers. Phagocytes actually absorb and neutralize unwanted foreign invaders.

Our immune system doesn’t just practice stranger danger, it also detects malfunctioning cells inside our bodies and kills them through a process called apoptosis. This is a pretty important job that our immune system performs because if left unharmed, these malfunctioning cells can grow and become tumors, malignant or cancerous. The activation of a CB2 receptor by a cannabinoid can actually trigger the apoptosis of cells. The balance between cell growth and cell death is quintessential to a healthy, happy, and functioning immune system.

Does CBD Aid In That Balance?

That’s the goal, at least. Cannabinoids, in general, act as neutralizers and attempt to bring your body back to homeostasis. That’s why when a CB2 receptor is activated and the malfunctioning cells die, that can create an anti-inflammatory effect. To maintain tissue homeostasis requires both the removal of invaded microbial pathogens as well as the removal of dying cells. Apoptosis is a tool your body uses to kill invaders and dying cells and allows the recycling of those old cell parts. Maintaining a balance for this process that can be immensely beneficial for those with autoimmune disorders. When your body’s defense system is functioning properly, more energy and resources can be allocated to actually fighting antigens and not triggering excessive inflammatory cells. That’s why, according to Project CBD, a new wave of research is starting to point towards cannabinoids as having an adaptive immunomodulating effect, rather than just suppressing overactive immune activity.

I Can’t Stop Stressing

It’s understandable that all of us are under a lot more stress than is typical in early springtime and it’s no secret that stress doesn’t exactly promote good health. There is evidence to show that stress actually obstructs your immune system’s ability to function properly. Luckily for us, CBD may help reduce stress and anxiety. CBD isolate, meaning just the cannabidiol compound, can actually cross the blood-brain barrier to potentially offer mood stabilization and/or anxiety relief. Quinton, one of our bloggers, wrote a whole blog about how you can use CBD to potentially relieve stress if you want to delve deeper into that process and what products we carry that can help. Nonetheless, by reducing strain on your immune system your body is able to more effectively keep you safe and healthy.

Stay Healthy!

I hope that after learning a little bit more about how hemp can potentially be a useful addition to your defense against bacteria and viruses, you have a little more peace of mind. I know that I’m not alone in feeling overwhelmed and a little too helpless for comfort by our circumstances. From the news to social media to the strangers on the street, the COVID-19 buzz is loud and quite scary for those of us with compromised immune systems. Including CBD into your routine is in no way a substitute for washing your hands, social distancing, and all of the other necessary precautions suggested by the CDC right now. Nevertheless, taking my CBD every morning before I leave the house is one thing I do to protect myself and feel prepared to take on the world that day. Hopefully, Green Wellness can be a part of your defense, too!

The Ultimate Guide to Self-Care with CBD Products

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids, which can all be found in varieties of the cannabis plant, including marijuana and hemp. In recent years, there has been an explosion in the interest of self-care with CBD products.

CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) are the most commonly recognized cannabinoids. However, the two chemical compounds are very different. THC has psychoactive properties, creating the characteristic “high” associated with using marijuana. CBD, on the other hand, does not have any of these psychoactive properties. Instead, it provides the benefits of cannabis without the high.

With the growing popularity of CBD oils and products, it has quickly become a common ingredient in self-care routines. Whether you’ve had a rough week or just need some time to yourself, CBD products could be just what you’ve needed to enhance your own life. Here’s your ultimate guide to incorporating CBD products into your self-care routine.

Use CBD Products for Post-Workout Routines

CBD for Sore Muscles

CBD is available in a variety of forms and delivery methods, including topical creams, lotions, balms, and salves. These work by activating the endocannabinoid receptors located within your muscle tissue. Along with more direct delivery, topical CBD products offer more localized relief, only affecting the area where you apply the balm or lotion.

Studies in rats found that transdermal forms of cannabidiol may help reduce inflammation and pain. Other studies further point to the role of your endocannabinoid system in regulating both acute and chronic pain, though more research is needed to confirm these early findings.

The key here is the direct application of the topical CBD to the affected area. You don’t have to worry about metabolism or all the processing and breakdown that happens in your stomach and intestines with edible CBD.

If you have been carrying some heavy loads or going extra hard at the gym, consider massaging some CBD lotion into your muscles, especially before you head to bed.

CBD Balms for Skin Care

CBD Topicals for Skincare

Inflammation often lies at the root of many skin problems, including acne and rosacea. Even general redness and blemishes are likely caused by some degree of inflammation.

Cannabinoids have been found to possess antioxidant properties. Antioxidants work by neutralizing free radicals, a product of the natural oxidation that happens within your body. Free radicals can cause damage to muscles, DNA, and other tissues, including skin, contributing to inflammation and general signs of aging. CBD may work two-fold as an antioxidant to potentially help with inflammation and signs of aging, though again, more studies are needed to fully understand these potential benefits.

On top of all of that, CBD oils often contain natural fatty acids that can help nourish dry skin. If you have been spending too much time in the sun, CBD may provide relief for sunburns.

After cleansing your face, apply some CBD balm to your skin to help blemishes, soothe any signs of redness or inflammation, and generally calm yourself after a stressful day.

CBD Bath Bombs

A hot bath is one of the most essential tools in your self-care arsenal. Bath bombs, in general, elevate the experience to a new level of luxuriousness, but with CBD bath bombs you can help relax your body and calm your mind while keeping your skin nourished, soft, and smooth. Let the bath bomb wash away the sweat, dirt, and bad vibes that have accumulated throughout the day.

It’s as easy as filling your tub and dropping in the bath bomb. From there, put on your favorite album or podcast, curl up with a book (that you don’t mind getting a little waterlogged), or just let your mind wander freely. Top it off with a chilled drink to stay hydrated while you soak, and you may just replace your showers with baths altogether.

CBD and Food

Cooking with CBD

Along with hygiene and relaxation, you need to recharge your body with the right foods. The good news is that CBD can be easily incorporated into just about any food or dish you could be craving. Some general tips for making food with CBD:

1. Be Aware of Temperature

Although warming CBD can help increase its general effectiveness, getting it too hot can actually eliminate some of its active components, particularly terpenes. Around 320 degrees Fahrenheit, the CBD will begin to evaporate. Generally, you should avoid heating CBD directly over high heat.

2. Sweeter Is Easier

CBD is most often used in sweet dishes and baked goods, as sugar and chocolate offer easy ways to mask the inherent bitter flavor of CBD and other cannabinoids.

3. But You Can Still Try Savory

That said, CBD can still be used quite effectively in savory dishes. It just needs to be infused into some sort of fat or oil, like butter, lard, ghee, or coconut oil. Vodka, rum, and other hard spirits also offer an effective vehicle for CBD in savory dishes.

4. Cooking Is Better Than Drizzling

As tempting as it might be to just drizzle some CBD into your soup or onto your sandwich, cooking it into your dish is always recommended. Aside from helping process the actual CBD, the heat helps the flavors mix, covering up the CBD’s bitterness.

5. Understand Refined and Unrefined CBD Oils

Refined oils offer more versatility and are generally easier to work with, as less-refined oils have more of that bitter aftertaste. However, less-refined oils can still be plenty useful in dishes containing chocolate, spices, or other strong flavors.

6. Stir It In

When you add your CBD oil, powder, or tincture, make sure you stir it in thoroughly, even more than you might think is necessary. You want to evenly distribute the cannabinoid so that every bite or sip of your dish offers plenty of CBD.

7. Store Properly

Once you have finished using your CBD oil, store it in a cool, dry place. CBD and other cannabinoids are sensitive to heat and light, both of which can degrade the active components, resulting in weaker effects and more bitter CBD oil. If you want your next CBD-infused dish to taste great, keep the oil in your pantry.

An easy and refreshing way to incorporate CBD into your self-care routine is to make a smoothie. All you need is:

–          One cup of frozen strawberries

–          One cup of frozen raspberries

–          A half cup of blueberries

–          A half cup of vanilla yogurt

–          Three teaspoons of honey

–          1 teaspoon of ground ginger

–          A few drops of your favorite CBD oil or a couple of teaspoons of CBD powder

Blend all the ingredients in your blender and enjoy. You can also easily add some greens, including spinach and kale, for extra fiber and nutrition. The berries, yogurt, and honey should cover up any bitterness or overly vegetal flavors.

Just as a note, CBD can have low bioavailability when taken in any sort of edible form. That means that a portion of the CBD you ingest will naturally be lost via the body’s digestive system before it actually gets absorbed into your system. Furthermore, based on a huge range of factors, CBD that has been ingested can take a few hours to take effect, and the effective serving size can vary. If it’s your first time with CBD, it’s always recommended that you start low and slow at about five milligrams before you work your way up.

CBD for Sleep

CBD for Sleep

You can’t address self-care without considering the importance of a good night’s rest. Sleep not only helps refresh your body and mind, but it also just feels great to lie down and relax. However, if you’re feeling stressed, you’ll also probably have trouble falling asleep or getting a restful night in bed.

Where oils and tinctures often have to be ingested and move slowly through your digestive system, sublingual sprays deliver a small but powerful serving size of CBD directly to an area of the mouth that features highly absorbent membranes. That translates to a faster effect instead of waiting hours for the CBD to travel through your body. Simply spray the CBD under your tongue before bed. It should take just minutes to take effect and should last for hours.

5 General Self-Care Tips

There are plenty of steps you can take to enhance your self-care along with incorporating more CBD.

1. Meditate

Meditation is a simple and effective way to reduce everyday stress, promote happiness, and increase your general clarity. Best of all, you don’t need a lot of time to do it. Just a few minutes of meditation a day can make all the difference.

Find a quiet, comfortable room, close your eyes, and be present in the moment. Start by focusing on your breathing, taking the time to take full breaths in and out. Then do a quick check-in with your body, from the top of your head down to the tips of your toes. See if you can feel the skin on your scalp, your eyes, your ears. Determine if something feels painful or “off” as you scan down. Adjust your body, but move on.

The biggest misconception about meditation is that it’s about emptying your mind or thinking about nothing. In reality, it’s about being present with yourself, which also means understanding that your mind will wander, and that’s fine. If your mind wanders as you meditate, don’t get frustrated or annoyed. Simply acknowledge that your mind wandered and gently pull your attention back to yourself.

2. Clean Your Living Space

It might seem like a chore, but it can be a huge part of taking care of yourself and battling stress. It also doesn’t require a full ceiling-to-floor scrub down. Spend five to ten minutes each day cleaning, organizing, or arranging some part of your home, whether it’s your workspace, your bed, or your closet. You’d be surprised just how much you can accomplish in that time and how fulfilled you’ll feel after you’ve done it.

3. Write Down and Visualize Your Plans

As you start each day, write down and visualize your plans and hopeful accomplishments for the day. Give yourself the time you need to do what you need to do, and remember that it’s okay if you don’t finish everything you write down. This is more about organization and understanding your own needs.

4. Unplug

Social media and technology can be great tools that can help you connect with others and learn everything about the world, but that constant source of news and information can be extremely overwhelming. If possible, consider taking a break from social media and tech, even for just an hour a day. It’ll all still be there when you get back.

5. Help Your Community

Self-care is as much about helping others as it is taking care of yourself. If you have the time, consider volunteering with a local organization, whether it’s an animal shelter, library, or soup kitchen.

“Self-care” gets thrown around a lot these days. The key to it is checking in with yourself and giving yourself the space and time you need. Often, caring about others starts with caring for yourself.

Does CBD Show Up on Drug Tests?

There are certain situations when you may have to take a drug test. In most cases, this involves screening a sample of your urine for illicit substances, one of which is marijuana. If the test reveals the presence of an illicit substance in your system, the outcome of your situation will likely be unpleasant.

Because of its close relationship to marijuana, many new users face a common concern when trying CBD for the first time:

Will CBD oil show up on a drug test?

While the answer to this question seems like it should be a simple yes or no, there’s a bit more to it than that.

In most cases, using CBD will not test positive on a drug screening. In some situations, however, it could

To understand how and when CBD oil could show up on a drug test, it’s important to first understand the difference between hemp and marijuana versus CBD and THC.

How Drug Tests Work

Hemp and marijuana are two classifications of the Cannabis plant and both produce an abundance of CBD.

While the two plants share some similarities, hemp and marijuana are classified differently under the law based on their concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the intoxicating compound found in cannabis.

Hemp is characterized by its very low amount of THC and is federally legal in the United States.

In stark contrast, marijuana can contain highly concentrated amounts of THC and can induce intense mind-altering effects when consumed. Because of this, marijuana is federally illegal in the United States with only some states allowing medical marijuana usage.

So, how does this relate to CBD and drug testing?

To determine if someone is using marijuana, standard drug tests are designed to detect the presence of the psychoactive substance within the plant, THC––not CBD.

Because of this, using CBD should not cause you to test positive for marijuana usage.

If, however, the CBD product does contain trace amounts of THC, you might not pass a drug test…

The solution to this dilemma?

CBD Isolate

How to Pass a Drug Test with CBD Isolate

Does CBD Show Up on Drug Tests? Know! the Facts!

Commercially, there are three different types of CBD: “Full Spectrum CBD,” “Broad Spectrum CBD,” and “CBD Isolate.”

The difference between the three is based on the cannabinoid extraction process.

Full Spectrum CBD

Full Spectrum CBD is extracted from cannabis along with all cannabinoids, terpenes and other plant parts, which can potentially include THC. Depending on if the CBD is derived from hemp or marijuana, Full Spectrum CBD presents some complications that could be risky when trying to pass a drug test.

While full spectrum can deliver enhanced benefits from the full cannabinoid spectrum, the presence of other cannabinoids and the possible presence of THC is a risk that should be avoided if you are or will be regularly drug tested.

Broad Spectrum CBD

Broad Spectrum CBD is extracted from cannabis along with all cannabinoids, terpenes and other plant parts; however, unlike Full Spectrum CBD, THC is completely removed.

While Broad Spectrum CBD does not contain THC, the presence of the other cannabinoids and plant parts presents an unknown factor. Since there are drug tests that can detect CBD specifically, it’s likely there are drug tests designed to detect other cannabinoids. With multiple cannabinoids in Broad Spectrum CBD, there is a higher chance of one of them being detected.

If you aren’t being drug tested, Broad Spectrum CBD presents all the benefits of full spectrum CBD without the risks of THC, but if you are or will be regularly drug tested, Broad Spectrum CBD could be risky.

CBD Isolate

CBD Isolate is extracted from the hemp plant and isolated from all other cannabinoids, terpenes, and other plant parts, resulting in a 99%+ pure CBD extract that contains no THC.

As a singular CBD compound in its purest form with virtually no THC, it is extremely unlikely that using CBD will test positive for THC.

It is important to note that the quality and integrity of the product does play a factor here. If the product had not been properly sourced, produced and tested, the actual cannabinoid content on the product’s label may differ drastically from its actual cannabinoid content.

To avoid any complications, only purchase CBD products from top-rated, reputable brands with a good track record who openly disclose their production processes and regularly test their CBD with a 3rd party lab.

For more information on what to look for in a good CBD product, check out our guide: 10 Things to Know Before You Buy CBD

The Bottom Line

Of the three options, the right choice is clear.

While Full Spectrum and Broad Spectrum can deliver enhanced health benefits and are great options in any other circumstance, if you are going to be drug tested, it’s best to play it safe.

CBD Isolate, by itself, is a powerful compound, capable of delivering a variety of health benefits. Most importantly, it’s highly unlikely that it will show up on a drug test.

I hope that this helped shed some light on an important and confusing subject. If you have any questions, suggestions, comments, or ways to improve “Does CBD Show Up on Drug Tests?” we’d love to hear from you in the comments below!

Thank you for reading!

Source: CBDOrigin.com

The History of CBD – A Brief Overview

While decades of cannabis prohibition may lead some to assume that the therapeutic benefits of CBD are a recent discovery, that’s far from the truth.

Chinese Emperor Sheng Neng | Source: Wikipedia

The first documented use of cannabis-derived medicine dates back to 2737 BC when Chinese Emperor Sheng Neng used a cannabis-infused tea to aid with a variety of ailments including memory, malariarheumatism, and gout.

Queen Victoria is believed to have used CBD to alleviate menstrual cramps during her reign, which ended in 1901.

Throughout history, cannabis had served as a valuable therapeutic resource; however, during the rise of modern medicine, it was not recognized by most in the medical community due to a lack of scientific evidence.

It wasn’t until 1839, when Irish physician and medical researcher, William B. O’Shaughnessy, published a study which investigated the plant’s therapeutic effects, that researchers did begin to consider the medical applications of cannabis.

In his study, which was then quite controversial, O’Shaughnessy explored the rudimentary effects of cannabis and thoroughly described its potential medical applications, particularly as an anesthetic.

While the Irish researcher may have not realized it then, he had just opened the door towards the discovery of the compounds that would one day be referred to as cannabinoids.

The Discovery of Cannabinoids

Nearly a century after O’Shaughnessy published his study, advancements in research and technology revealed the presence of compounds within the cannabis plant.

The first discovery of an individual cannabinoid was made, when British chemist Robert S. Cahn reported the partial structure of Cannabinol (CBN), which he later identified as fully formed in 1940.

Two years later, American chemist, Roger Adams, made history when he successfully isolated the first cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). His research is also responsible for the discovery of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Dr. Roger Adams is the first scientist to isolate CBD and identified THC | Source: FreedomLeaf.com

Early Research of Cannabinoid Pharmacology

During the early stages of cannabis research, scientists had limited knowledge of cannabinoid structure and an only partial understanding of the biological composition contained within the plant.

Because of this, early researchers could not accurately determine which compound was causing which effect.

Dr. Raphael Mechoulam “The Godfather of Cannabis Research” | Source: Vice.com

Dr. Raphael Mechoulam made the first breakthrough towards understanding the effects of individual cannabinoids in 1963 when he successfully identified the stereochemistry of CBD.

A year later, Mecholam’s discovered the stereochemistry of THC, which revealed the cannabinoids direct relationship to the euphoric effects associated with marijuana use and disassociated CBD as a mind-altering compound.

As research advanced, a landmark victory occurred, when New Mexico passed the 1978 Controlled Substances Therapeutic Research Act, a bill which legally recognized the medicinal value of cannabis.

The momentum continued during the 1980s as Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted a study on the potential application of CBD for the treatment of epilepsy as a hypnotic.

In the study, Mechoulam and his team administered daily doses of 300mg of CBD to study a group of 8 subjects. After just four months of treatment, half of the subjects stopped having seizures and the others exhibited a decrease in the frequency of their seizures.

This was a huge breakthrough that had the potential to change the lives of more than 50 million epilepsy sufferers from around the world.

Unfortunately, the discovery was not as publicized any type of breakthrough, due to the stigmas towards cannabis during that time.

The work of Dr. Mechoulam and the other early cannabis pioneers would not go in vain though.

Less than a decade later, interest in the therapeutic applications of cannabinoids revealed the discovery of additional cannabinoids, further understanding of cannabinoid structure, and the amazing breakthrough of our body’s Endocannabinoid System, a network of receptors that interact with receptors found in cannabinoids.

As research progressed, it would eventually lead to an explosion of interest across the United States.

The Rise of CBD in the United States


In 1996, California passed Proposition 215, making it the first state to legalize medical marijuana

Within a few years, 7 other states followed suit, including:

  • Oregon, Alaska, Washington (1998)
  • Maine (1999)
  • Hawaii, Nevada, Colorado (2000)

With the legalization of medical marijuana, patients in those states now had legal access to cannabis, and researchers could expand their studies into cannabinoid medical uses.

This prompted research into the potential of CBD for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and numerous neurodegenerative diseases.

While the stigma towards cannabis had begun to shift, it still fell under a very gray area of the law, and because of CBD’s close relationship to the controversial plant, it was judged under those same laws.

While the distinction between CBD and the other cannabinoids was more known throughout the scientific community, it was foreign knowledge amongst those who could actually impact these laws – the general public.

Based on surveys from 1998-2002, more than 2 out of 3 Americans opposed cannabis legalization. One of the major factors that contributed to America’s opposition at the time was the prevalence of stigmas like “marijuana is a gateway drug” and others of the sort. This led Americans to believe that cannabis is dangerous, addictive, and harmful.

Survey Showing Cannabis Legalization Support in America | Source: Pew Research

Based on the country’s current position towards cannabis at that time, changing their beliefs, educating the masses, and enacting CBD-specific laws seemed impossible, with a timeline of 25-40 years being optimistic.

But in the 2000s, an interesting phenomenon began to happen.

People began to share their personal experiences with others.

Source: @simpson_rick on Twitter

From Rick Simpson, a man who found relief from a rare form of skin cancer to countless others––the unique and moving stories of CBD-users revealed how CBD could deliver relief from conditions like anxiety, depression, insomnia, arthritis, fibromyalgia and more.

The genuine, organic nature of the stories and the openness of those to share their personal and vulnerable experiences for the purpose of helping others fueled a surge of awareness across the country.

Then, in 2010, a powerful story about the health benefits of CBD emerged and ignited the movement that would change the world forever.

The Amazing Story of Charlotte Figi

Charlotte Figi, a young girl in Colorado, was born in 2006 with a very rare form of chronic epilepsy known as Dravet Syndrome.

Dravet Syndrome is a very rare and devastating form of epilepsy that affects approximately 1 in every 16,000 to 21,000 infants.

By the age of just four, Charlotte had lost much her ability to walk, talk, and eat, and experienced 300 seizures per week.

Charlotte Figi, Dravet Syndrome patient | Source: CNN

While her parents had tried every option modern medicine had to offer and some, they realized that traditional doctors could not help their daughter and hesitantly turned to cannabis when Charlotte was 5.

After consuming a small dose of CBD oil extracted from a high-CBD cannabis strain, Charlotte’s seizures ceased almost immediately.

Charlotte Figi, thriving and living a normal life thanks to CBD | Source: US News

After hours had passed and Charlotte didn’t have a seizure, Charlotte’s parents realized that CBD had worked.

Today, Charlotte experiences 2 to 3 seizures per month, which has literally restored her opportunity to live a normal life. In an interview with CNN, Charlotte’s parents confirm that their daughter is happy and thriving as any normal girl and believe everyone should know about what CBD did for their daughter.

As a symbol for hope, the inspiring story of Charlotte Figi, Rick Simpson, and the countless others who have shared their experience, has fueled a massive level of support, awareness, and passion, which continues to drive the CBD movement forward today.


CBD in the US Today

In the years since Charlotte’s story, the stigma towards CBD and cannabis in America has dramatically changed.

Those that once opposed cannabis, now turn to CBD for relief, and its therapeutic properties are helping to change the lives of people around the country.

We are still just on the brink of this great movement, which is continuing to thrive at exponential rates, surpassing everyone’s expectations and achieving the impossible.

Here are just a few of the landmark events that have occurred:

  • There has been a massive growth of awareness and surge in the retail sales of CBD, leading analyst to predict that the CBD market could reach a value of $22 billion by 2022
  • Research has revealed even more therapeutic applications of CBD
  • Hemp-derived CBD was federally legalized under the 2018 Farm Bill
  • The FDA approved of a CBD-based oral solution called Epidolex
  • CBD products are now being sold online in stores across the country, including major retailers like 711Sephora, and Neiman Marcus.

The Future of CBD

While the perception towards CBD has progressed dramatically over the years, CBD still is not fully normalized across the country. There are still many who stand in opposition to CBD and other cannabis-derived compounds and many more who aren’t aware of their benefits.

In order for CBD to reach its full potential and change the lives of as many people as possible, there’s still more work that needs to be done. While there may be some challenges ahead, the strength of the CBD community has shown that nothing is going to stand in its way.

CBD is here to stay.

I hope that this brief article has helped to inform you about the rich history of this amazing cannabinoid and, more importantly, I hope that it has inspired you to learn more and become more involved with this amazing movement.

Cannabis compounds like CBD have the potential to impacts the lives of millions of people, and with continued effort from all of us, it can change the world!

Spread the word and keep a lookout for our next article!

Thanks for reading!

Source: CBDOrigin.com

Research Shows CBD Benefits 50+ Conditions

Over the last few years, Cannabidiol (CBD) has exploded into the world of health and wellness.

With dozens of natural benefits, CBD has been used to ease conditions such as anxietyepilepsyneurodegenerative diseases and more.

For the last century, researchers have assessed CBD as a treatment for numerous conditions. More than 50, in fact.

What these studies show is profound.

If you are looking for research on CBD benefits for a certain condition, you will find it here.

From mental health to MS, we have gathered a collection of more than 250 resources, organized by condition.

Check out the collection below.

Studies Reveal CBD Benefits More Than 50 Conditions

Browse Medical Research Based on Condition

5 CBD FOR ACNE Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Acne?
CBD FOR ACNE Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes
CBD FOR ACNE The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: Novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities
CBD FOR ACNE Endocannabinoids enhance lipid synthesis and apoptosis of human sebocytes via cannabinoid receptor-2-mediated signaling
CBD FOR ACNE Endocannabinoid signaling and epidermal differentiation
6 CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Searching for a Neurobiological Basis for Self-Medication Theory in ADHD Comorbid With Substance Use Disorders
CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats
CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Subtypes of Attention Deficit — Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use
CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students
CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: A case report
CBD FOR ADD / ADHD Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC
10 CBD FOR ADDICTION Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers
CBD FOR ADDICTION Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine
CBD FOR ADDICTION Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances
CBD FOR ADDICTION Differential effect of cannabinol and cannabidiol on THC-induced responses during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats
CBD FOR ADDICTION Impact of Cannabis Use during Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance Treatment
CBD FOR ADDICTION Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010
CBD FOR ADDICTION Dysregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor and associated signaling networks in brains of cocaine addicts and cocaine-treated rodents
CBD FOR ADDICTION Comparison of cannabidiol, antioxidants, and diuretics in reversing binge ethanol-induced neurotoxicity
CBD FOR ADDICTION Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder
CBD FOR ADDICTION Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome
4 CBD FOR ALS Cannabis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: hypothetical and practical applications, and a call for clinical trials
CBD FOR ALS ALS: delayed disease progression in mice by treatment with a cannabinoid
CBD FOR ALS The (Endo)Cannabinoid System in Multiple Sclerosis and ALS
CBD FOR ALS Survey of cannabis use in patients with ALS
16 CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Endocannabinoid signalling in Alzheimer’s disease
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer’s disease pathology
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS The Potential Therapeutic Effects of THC on Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS The Role of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabidiol: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabinoid receptor 1 deficiency in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease leads to enhanced cognitive impairment despite of a reduction in amyloid deposition
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS The role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease: facts and hypotheses
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabidiol Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein Ubiquitination and Reduction of Beta Amyloid Expression in SHSY5YAPP+ Cells Through PPARγ Involvement
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic
CBD FOR ALZHEIMERS Can Marijuana Prevent Alzheimer’s?
4 CBD FOR ANOREXIA Leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids: Potential therapeutic targets in anorexia nervosa
CBD FOR ANOREXIA The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence
CBD FOR ANOREXIA Cancer cachexia and cannabinoids
CBD FOR ANOREXIA Brain Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Availability in Patients with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa
9 CBD FOR ANXIETY Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug
CBD FOR ANXIETY Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa
CBD FOR ANXIETY Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients
CBD FOR ANXIETY Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder
CBD FOR ANXIETY Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation
CBD FOR ANXIETY Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow
CBD FOR ANXIETY The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
CBD FOR ANXIETY The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR ANXIETY Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: A review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence
4 CBD FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS The role of the endocannabinoid system in atherosclerosis
CBD FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS Cannabinoid receptors in atherosclerosis
CBD FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome
CBD FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice
4 CBD FOR ARTHRITIS Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
CBD FOR ARTHRITIS The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
CBD FOR ARTHRITIS The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55
CBD FOR ARTHRITIS Arthritis and cannabinoids
5 CBD FOR ASTHMA The role of cannabinoids in inflammatory modulation of allergic respiratory disorders, inflammatory pain and ischemic stroke
CBD FOR ASTHMA Allergen challenge increases anandamide in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with allergic asthma
CBD FOR ASTHMA Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs
CBD FOR ASTHMA Endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit neurogenic inflammations in guinea pig airways
CBD FOR ASTHMA Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol
5 CBD FOR AUTISM Mutations found in individuals with autism interfere with endocannabinoid signaling in the brain
CBD FOR AUTISM Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders
CBD FOR AUTISM A novel approach to the symptomatic treatment of autism
CBD FOR AUTISM Consequences of cannabinoid and monoaminergic system disruption in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorders
CBD FOR AUTISM Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome
5 CBD FOR BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: A review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
CBD FOR BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER Cannabidiol was ineffective for manic episode of bipolar affective disorder
CBD FOR BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER Effects of Co-occurring Cannabis Use Disorders on the Course of Bipolar Disorder After a First Hospitalization for Mania
CBD FOR BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER Does Cannabis Use Affect Treatment Outcome in Bipolar Disorder?: A Longitudinal Analysis
CBD FOR BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER The Use of Cannabis as a Mood Stabilizer in Bipolar Disorder: Anecdotal Evidence and the Need for Clinical Research
5 CBD FOR CANCER – GENERAL Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
CBD FOR CANCER – GENERAL Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms
CBD FOR CANCER – GENERAL The inhibitory effects of cannabidiol on systemic malignant tumors
CBD FOR CANCER – GENERAL Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1
CBD FOR CANCER – GENERAL Marijuana fights cancer and helps manage side effects
4 CBD FOR CANCER – LUNG Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1C
CBD FOR CANCER – LUNG COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells
CBD FOR CANCER – LUNG Decrease of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may contribute to the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol on human lung cancer cells
CBD FOR CANCER – LUNG Media ignored expert’s shocking findings that marijuana helps prevent lung cancer
5 CBD FOR CANCER – PROSTATE/COLON Towards the use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids for prostate cancer
CBD FOR CANCER – PROSTATE/COLON In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
CBD FOR CANCER – PROSTATE/COLON Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent
CBD FOR CANCER – PROSTATE/COLON Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBD FOR CANCER – PROSTATE/COLON Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol
5 CBD FOR CANCER – BREAST Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma
CBD FOR CANCER – BREAST Cannabidiol induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy
CBD FOR CANCER – BREAST Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis
CBD FOR CANCER – BREAST Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells
CBD FOR CANCER – BREAST Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
8 CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines(PubMed)
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Id-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of glioblastoma aggressiveness and a novel therapeutic target
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Triggering of the TRPV2 channel by cannabidiol sensitizes glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87-MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect
CBD FOR CANCER – BRAIN Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme
4 CBD FOR CANCER – LEUKEMIA Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression
CBD FOR CANCER – LEUKEMIA Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells
CBD FOR CANCER – LEUKEMIA Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size – But Is It Important?
CBD FOR CANCER – LEUKEMIA Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia
4 CBD FOR CANCER – SKIN Anticancer activity of anandamide in human cutaneous melanoma cells
CBD FOR CANCER – SKIN Cannabidiol inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus-infected endothelium (PubMed)
CBD FOR CANCER – SKIN Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma
CBD FOR CANCER – SKIN The Cannabinoid Receptors Are Required for Ultraviolet-Induced Inflammation and Skin Cancer Development
4 CBD FOR CANCER – ENDOCRINE Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours
CBD FOR CANCER – ENDOCRINE A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells
CBD FOR CANCER – ENDOCRINE Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: Correlation with survival and pain
CBD FOR CANCER – ENDOCRINE Cannabinoid 2 receptor induction by IL-12 and its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma
4 CBD FOR CANCER – BLADDER TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer
CBD FOR CANCER – BLADDER Association Between Cannabis Use and the Risk of Bladder Cancer
CBD FOR CANCER – BLADDER Inhibitory Effect of Standardized Cannabis sativaExtract and Its Ingredient Cannabidiol on Rat and Human Bladder Contractility
CBD FOR CANCER – BLADDER Bladder cancer cell growth and motility implicate cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated modifications of sphingolipids metabolism
4 CBD FOR CANCER – PAIN RELIEF Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain
CBD FOR CANCER – PAIN RELIEF Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial
CBD FOR CANCER – PAIN RELIEF Marijuana extract helps prevent chemo pain
CBD FOR CANCER – PAIN RELIEF An Open-Label Extension Study to Investigate the Long-Term Safety and Tolerability of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray and Oromucosal THC Spray in Patients With Terminal Cancer-Related Pain Refractory to Strong Opioid Analgesics
10 CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Topical and systemic cannabidiol improves trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in mice
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabinoids and the gut: New developments and emerging concepts
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Animal and human studies
CBD FOR CROHNS & COLITIS Hergenrather presents study of Crohn’s patients as a template for clinical research on Cannabis
11 CBD FOR DEPRESSION Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa
CBD FOR DEPRESSION The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology and treatment of major depressive illness
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: Possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Putative role of endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology of depression and actions of antidepressants
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines are differentially regulated in major depression and following exposure to social stress
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women
CBD FOR DEPRESSION The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for the development of a novel class of antidepressants
CBD FOR DEPRESSION Antidepressants and Changes in Concentration of Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Rat Brain Structures
21 CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Endocannabinoid system participates in neuroendocrine control of homeostasis
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS CBD for children with Dravet’s and intractable seizures
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Medicinal marijuana stops seizures, brings hope to a little girl
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabinoids for epilepsy
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy – From receptors to clinical response
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS The non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Endocannabinoid system protects against cryptogenic seizures
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Seizing an opportunity for the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppressespentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-inducedincreases in epilepsy-related gene expression
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Cannabidiol–antiepileptic drug comparisons and interactions in experimentally induced seizures in rats
5 CBD FOR FIBROMYALGIA Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
CBD FOR FIBROMYALGIA Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life
CBD FOR FIBROMYALGIA Association of herbal cannabis use with negative psychosocial parameters in patients with fibromyalgia
CBD FOR FIBROMYALGIA Cannabinoids for fibromyalgia
CBD FOR FIBROMYALGIA Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
4 CBD FOR GLAUCOMA Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite
CBD FOR GLAUCOMA Cannabinoids and glaucoma
CBD FOR GLAUCOMA The treatment of glaucoma using a non-psychoactive preparation of Cannabis sativa
CBD FOR GLAUCOMA Cannabinoids for treatment of glaucoma
7 CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE The Effect of Cannabidiol on Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias: The Role of Adenosine A1 Receptors
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Endocannabinoids acting at cannabinoid-1 receptors regulate cardiovascular function in hypertension
CBD FOR HEART DISEASE Oleamide: A fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?
6 CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s disease
CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Cannabinoids: Novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington’s disease
CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington’s disease: role of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors
CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders
CBD FOR HUNTINGTONS DISEASE Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
13 CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION The endocannabinoid system: an emerging key player in inflammation
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Diabetic retinopathy: Role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol reduces Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARγ involvement
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death
CBD FOR INFLAMMATION Cannabinoids in clinical practice
9 CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: A brief overview
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: Effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (Biochemical Pharmacology)
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Cannabinoids and the gut: New developments and emerging concepts
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract
CBD FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Animal and human studies
4 CBD FOR KIDNEY DISEASE Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death
CBD FOR KIDNEY DISEASE Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
CBD FOR KIDNEY DISEASE Is There a Legitimate Role for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Management in Chronic Kidney Disease?
CBD FOR KIDNEY DISEASE The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis and treatment of kidney diseases
7 CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Cannabidiol causes activated hepatic stellate cell death through a mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice
CBD FOR LIVER DISEASE Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation
5 CBD FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults
CBD FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome
CBD FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes
CBD FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME Metabolic syndrome in people with a psychotic illness: is cannabis protective?
CBD FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME Cannabinoid receptor 1 inhibition improves cardiac function and remodelling after myocardial infarction and in experimental metabolic syndrome
5 CBD FOR MIGRAINES Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
CBD FOR MIGRAINES Effects of anandamide in migraine: data from an animal model
CBD FOR MIGRAINES Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache
CBD FOR MIGRAINES The endocannabinoid system and migraine
CBD FOR MIGRAINES Variations in the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene predispose to migraine
6 CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders
CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders
CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS The endocannabinoid system and psychiatric disorders
CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS The endocannabinoid system in the regulation of emotions throughout lifespan: A discussion on therapeutic perspectives
CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders
CBD FOR MOOD DISORDERS Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow
3 CBD FOR MOTION SICKNESS Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR MOTION SICKNESS Dexamethasone alleviates motion sickness in rats in part by enhancing the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR MOTION SICKNESS The Effects of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabinol on Motion‐Induced Emesis
10 CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS THC and CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of Sativex, a combined cannabinoid medicine, in multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: A role for A2A receptors
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Nabiximols in the treatment of spasticity, pain and urinary symptoms due to multiple sclerosis
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Sativex long-term use: An open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain(
CBD FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Sativex: Clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain
6 CBD FOR NAUSEA Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
CBD FOR NAUSEA Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBD FOR NAUSEA Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
CBD FOR NAUSEA Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
CBD FOR NAUSEA Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis and its synthetic dimethylheptyl homolog suppress nausea in an experimental model with rats
CBD FOR NAUSEA Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
5 CBD FOR NEURODEGENERATION Cannabidiol: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?
CBD FOR NEURODEGENERATION Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
CBD FOR NEURODEGENERATION Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder
CBD FOR NEURODEGENERATION Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders
CBD FOR NEURODEGENERATION Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection
18 CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Sativex: Clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Cannabinoids for neuropathic pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Neuropathic orofacial pain: Cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: Mechanisms involved
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Marijuana extract helps prevent chemo pain
CBD FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN Pot users less likely to take painkillers
6 CBD FOR OBESITY The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults
CBD FOR OBESITY Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
CBD FOR OBESITY Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?
CBD FOR OBESITY The endocannabinoid system in obesity and type 2 diabetes
CBD FOR OBESITY Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk
CBD FOR OBESITY Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes
3 CBD FOR OCD Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour (PubMed)
CBD FOR OCD Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive–compulsive behaviour
CBD FOR OCD Involvement of endocannabinoids in antidepressant and anti-compulsive effect of fluoxetine in mice
7 CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: Importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ⁹-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease
CBD FOR PARKINSONS DISEASE Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease
3 CBD FOR PRION Nonpsychoactive cannabidiol prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity
CBD FOR PRION Cannabidiol: A prion therapy for mice?
CBD FOR PRION Alteration of the endocannabinoid system in mouse brain during prion disease
13 CBD FOR PTSD The endocannabinoid system provides an avenue for evidence-based treatment development for PTSD
CBD FOR PTSD Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid levels in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to the world trade center attacks
CBD FOR PTSD Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear
CBD FOR PTSD Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
CBD FOR PTSD Stress switches cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent plasticity from LTD to LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
CBD FOR PTSD Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence
CBD FOR PTSD Cannabinoid modulation of fear extinction brain circuits: A novel target to advance anxiety treatment
CBD FOR PTSD The endocannabinoid system and extinction learning
CBD FOR PTSD A current overview of cannabinoids and glucocorticoids in facilitating extinction of aversive memories: potential extinction enhancers
CBD FOR PTSD Cannabinoids and traumatic stress modulation of contextual fear extinction and GR expression in the amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal circuit
CBD FOR PTSD Non-antidepressant long-term treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder
CBD FOR PTSD The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: Involvement of the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR PTSD Modulation of Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Cannabinoid Receptors
4 CBD FOR RHEUMATISM Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress
CBD FOR RHEUMATISM Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases
CBD FOR RHEUMATISM Clinical Implications for Cannabinoid Use in the Rheumatic Diseases
CBD FOR RHEUMATISM Cannabinoids in the Management of Musculoskeletal or Rheumatic Diseases
12 CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: A new light for schizophrenia?
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation in first-episode psychosis
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: Therapeutic prospects
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Antipsychotic-like effects of cannabidiol and rimonabant: Systematic review of animal and human studies
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Marijuana compound treats schizophrenia with few side effects: Clinical trial
CBD FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA Clearing the smoke: what do we know about adolescent cannabis use and schizophrenia?
3 CBD FOR SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Pain-related behaviors and neurochemical alterations in mice expressing sickle hemoglobin: Modulation by cannabinoids
CBD FOR SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: A questionnaire study
CBD FOR SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Cannabinoid Receptor-Specific Mechanisms To Alleviate Pain In Sickle Cell Anemia Via Inhibition Of Mast Cell Activation And Neurogenic Inflammation
8 CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: Novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Endocannabinoids modulate human epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and survival via the sequential engagement of cannabinoid receptor-1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Cannabinoid 1 receptors in keratinocytes modulate proinflammatory chemokine secretion and attenuate contact allergic inflammation
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR SKIN CONDITIONS Topical cannabinoid agonists. An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus
7 CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS The nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent cannabidiol is a wake-inducing agent
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Endocannabinoid modulation of cortical up-states and NREM sleep
CBD FOR SLEEP DISORDERS Intranodose ganglion injections of dronabinol attenuate serotonin-induced apnea in Sprague-Dawley rat
4 CBD FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury
CBD FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury
CBD FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain From Spinal Cord Injury and Disease
CBD FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY Modulation of Inflammatory Responses by a Cannabinoid-2–Selective Agonist after Spinal Cord Injury
13 CBD FOR STRESS Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation
CBD FOR STRESS Regulation of endocannabinoid signaling by stress: Implications for stress-related affective disorders
CBD FOR STRESS Functional interactions between stress and the endocannabinoid system: from synaptic signaling to behavioral output
CBD FOR STRESS Neuromodulators, stress and plasticity: a role for endocannabinoid signalling
CBD FOR STRESS Downregulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus following chronic unpredictable stress
CBD FOR STRESS Endocannabinoids and stress
CBD FOR STRESS Stress regulates endocannabinoid-CB1 receptor signaling
CBD FOR STRESS Chronic Stress Impairs α1-Adrenoceptor-Induced Endocannabinoid-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
CBD FOR STRESS Endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of stress responses: Physiological and pathophysiological significance
CBD FOR STRESS Cannabinoid receptor activation prevents the effects of chronic mild stress on emotional learning and LTP in a rat model of depression
CBD FOR STRESS Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory
CBD FOR STRESS The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system
CBD FOR STRESS Low-frequency stimulation evokes serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens and induces long-term depression via production of endocannabinoid
6 CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury
CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism
CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism (
CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function
CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Protective Effects of Cannabidiol Against Hippocampal Cell Death and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Mice
CBD FOR STROKE/TBI Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance

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